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Digital Data Management - Cultural Module

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[Slide 1]

Bringing Digital Data Management Training into Methods Courses for Anthropology

Cultural Anthropology: Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management

Kathryn Oths
2016

[Slide 2]

Recommended citation:

Oths, Kathryn. “Cultural Anthropology: Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management.” In Bringing Digital Data Management Training into Methods Courses for Anthropology, edited by Blenda Femenías. Arlington, VA: American Anthropological Association, 2016. http://www.americananthro.org/methods

© American Anthropological Association 2016

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Bringing Digital Data Management Training into Methods Courses for Anthropology is a set of five modules:

  1. General Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management
  2. Archaeology: Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management
  3. Biological Anthropology: Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management
  4. Cultural Anthropology: Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management
  5. Linguistic Anthropology: Principles and Practices of Digital Data Management

Project support: National Science Foundation, Workshop Grant 1529315; Jeffrey Mantz, Program Director, Cultural Anthropology

[Slide 3]

Organization

  1. Review of material from “General principles and practices” module
  2. Why is it important to preserve and protect your data?
  3. Data types in cultural anthropology
  4. Managing data
  5. Software
  6. Data archiving
  7. Exercises
  8. References
  9. Acknowledgments

[Slide 4]

Review of material from “General principles and practices” module

[Slide 5]

Why is it important to preserve and protect your data?


[Caption: In one sad case, 40 years of ethnographic research notes ended up in a dumpster upon the anthropologist’s death because no provision had been made to archive them. Photograph by Christine O. Masson and Tracy Jaeger. Used with permission]

[Slide 6]

Ethical dimensions of cultural anthropology data collection and management

[Slide 7]

Data types in cultural anthropology

[Slide 8]

Data types in cultural anthropology

[Image: Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson working in the mosquito room, Tambunam, 1938; Credit: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mead/images/mm0211bs.jpg Photograph by Gregory Bateson]

 

[Slide 9]

Data types: “Born digital” compared to “made digital”

[Slide 10]

Managing data

Data management provides necessary ways to make data:

“But I don’t do data!”

 

Laptop graphic

[Credit: http://www.dreamstime.com/photos-images/open-laptop-computer.html]

[Slide 11]

Managing data: Case study of re-use

[Slide 12]

Managing data:
Case study of re-use

[Image: Detail of a page of Boas’s data in Materials for the Study of Inheritance in Man. Credit: In Gravlee et al. 2003. Used with permission of the American Anthropological Association.]

[Slide 13]

Managing data: Basic steps

[Slide 14]

Software:
Text analysis

Functions of text analysis software

[In-class exercise: Discussion of data collection and analysis]

[Slide 15]

Software:
Text analysis

Common packages used by anthropologists:

Open source:

Proprietary: all have graphical user interface

Data files in all programs are exportable to portable file types such as .txt and XML formats to ensure cross-platform readability.

[Slide 16]

Numerical data

Types of data that can be input:

It is important to learn how to code, enter, and clean numerical (and some text) data using a standard statistical package designed for the social sciences.

Content analysis:

[Slide 17]

Software: Numerical data analysis

Common packages used by anthropologists

Open source:

Proprietary:

While proprietary statistical packages may have more advanced features, open source packages are no cost and work well.

Data files in all programs are exportable to portable Excel-friendly formats such as .rtf or .txt to ensure cross-platform readability.

[Slide 18]

Steps to creating digital data: The codebook

One way to store data in digital form is by numerical codes.

[Slide 19]

Steps to creating digital data: The codebook

A codebook

[Outside-class exercise: Creating a codebook]

[Slide 20]

Data archiving

What to do with data once it is manageable?

Types of archives:

[Slide 21]

Data archiving

Why archive?

[Slide 22]

In-class exercise: Discussion of data collection

  1. What types of data have you generated
  2. For each situation:
  3. Are there any types of data for which you currently do not have a back-up plan?
  4. With all candor, describe a time when you lost data due to insufficient protection.
  5. Think about your most recent data collection instrument.
  6. Picture your most recent data files.

Learn about and discuss one text analysis software: Click here for a brief tutorial of CATMA

[Slide 23]

Outside-class exercise: Creating a codebook

[Slide 24]

Outside-class exercise: Creating a codebook

Example to use as a template:

CODEBOOK FOR ANTHROPOLOGY STUDENT SURVEY

Jane Dost, PhD, Researcher
1350 Doster Hall

January 1, 2016
University of Alaska

Variable #

Variable Description

Variable Name

Values

Format

1

Case ID Number

CASEID

Continuous

F2.0

2

Transfer Student

TRANSFER

1. Yes
2. No
9.Missing

F1.0

3

Transfer from where

WHERE

text

A35

4

Area of Concentration

AREACONC

1. cultural
2. biological
3. archaeological
4. linguistics

F1.0

5

Accessibility of Faculty

ACCESANT

Continuous, Scale of 1-10

F2.0

[Slide 25]

Outside-class exercise: Creating a codebook

[Slide 26]

Outside-class exercise: Creating a codebook

Andean Highlander Demographics and Recent Illness History:

Using these sample data, create your own codebook for the variables

Name, Age, Gender and Gravity of Illness.

1

At 32 years of age, Teodolinda is still living at home, nearly despairing of finding a husband. Her mother is worried that her pena (sadness) is to the point she cannot function well, and would like her to see a curandero for healing.

2

Daniel is 19, single, and the best soccer player his community has ever produced. As long as he stays healthy, everyone thinks he has a shot at playing for the national team.

3

Fidelita and her husband Raul would prefer to remain in the highlands and tend their crops and sheep, despite the pleas of their kids to come live with them on the coast, where they promise to get her treatment for her occasional skin allergies.

4

Azucena, 60 and recently widowed, is accompanied by two of her young grandchildren while their parents work in the city. She has dizzy spells that the doctor has said is due to extremely high blood pressure, though she thinks it is caused by mal viento (evil wind).

5

Since Jorge’s wife died last year, there is no one to help around the house. Despite his advanced age of 99, he must ride to the market town each Sunday to get supplies. The last time, he fell off his burro and hurt his back, and is now bedridden with no family to care for him.

6

Lucía had a daughter, Claudia, with her childhood sweetheart. Her parents disapproved of the union, so at 27 years of age she gave birth at her sister’s house without proper care from a midwife, which has led to the herbalist’s diagnosis of a bit of debilidad (debility, exhaustion).

7

Tomás, divorced from his first wife for several years, has just moved in with a woman who is also 33. She has 2 teenage children from a previous union. The family would have planted their spring potato crop last week if he hadn’t been bedridden with a case of the flu.

8

When Eustacia, 47, saw her son slip off the cliff during a storm, she suffered a tremendous susto (fright illness) that did not go away even though he lived. Her husband was powerless to make her feel better and was worried her illness was so severe she might die from it.

[Slide 27]

Outside-class exercise: Creating a codebook

All done? Your codebook should look something like this:

CODEBOOK FOR ANDEAN HIGHLAND
ILLNESS RESEARCH PROJECT

Your Name, Degree, Role
Your Work Address

Date
Institution/Company

Variable #

Variable Description

Variable Name

Values

Format

1

Case ID Number

CASEID

continuous

F2.0

2

First name of participant

NAME

text

A20

3

Age in years

AGE

continuous

F3.0

4

Gender of participant

GENDER

1. female
2. male
9. missing

F1.0

5

Gravity of current illness

ILLNESS

1. none
2. mild
3. moderate
4. serious
9. missing

F1.0

Optional: Take a brief tour of how to manage data in PSPP: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZRxpp1y4BY

[Slide 28]

References

Boas, Franz. “Changes in the Bodily Forms of Descendants of Immigrants.” American Anthropologist 14 (1912): 530-62. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1912.14.3.02a00080/full

Gravlee, Clarence C., H. Russell Bernard, and William R. Leonard. “Boas's Changes in Bodily Form: The Immigrant Study, Cranial Plasticity, and Boas's Physical Anthropology.” American Anthropologist 105(2) (2003): 326-32. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.2003.105.2.326/full

Gravlee, Clarence C. “Ethnic Classification in Southeastern Puerto Rico: The Cultural Model of ‘Color.’” Social Forces 83(3) (2005): 949-70. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598265

“Gravlee, Clarence C. - Research.” Accessed July 20, 2016. www.gravlee.org/research

Harris, Marvin. ”Referential Ambiguity in the Calculus of Brazilian Racial Identity.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26(1) (1970): 1–14. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629265

Leopold, Robert. “The Second Life of Ethnographic Fieldnotes.” Ateliers du LESC 32 (2008). http://ateliers.revues.org/3132. DOI: 10.4000/ateliers.3132

National Information Standards Organization (NISO). Understanding Metadata, Bethesda: NISO Press, 2004. http://www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf

Ruel, Erin, William Edward Wagner III, and Brian Joseph Gillespie. “Data Archiving.” In The Practice of Survey Research: Theory and Applications, 305-12. London: SAGE Publications, 2015.

Silver, Christina, and Ann Lewins. Using Software in Qualitative Analysis: A Step-by-Step Guide. London: SAGE Publications, 2014.

[Slide 29]

Acknowledgments

Modules: Writers, Arienne M. Dwyer, Blenda Femenías, Lindsay Lloyd-Smith, Kathryn Oths, George H. Perry; Editor, Blenda Femenías

Discussants:
Workshop One, February 12, 2016: Andrew Asher, Candace Greene, Lori Jahnke, Jared Lyle, Stephanie Simms
Workshop Two, May 13, 2016: Phillip Cash Cash, Jenny Cashman, Ricardo B. Contreras, Sara Gonzalez, Candace Greene, Christine Mallinson, Ricky Punzalan, Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Darlene Smucny, Natalie Underberg-Goode, Fatimah Williams Castro, Amber Wutich

American Anthropological Association:
Executive Director, Edward Liebow
Project Manager, Blenda Femenías
Research Assistant, Brittany Mistretta
Executive Assistant, Dexter Allen
Professional Fellow, Daniel Ginsberg
Web Services Administrator, Vernon Horn
Director, Publishing, Janine Chiappa McKenna



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